OTTO RAHN was born in Michelstadt, Germany, in 1904. After earning his degree in philology in 1924, he traveled extensively to the caves and castles of southern France, researching his belief that the Cathars were the last custodians of the Grail. Induced by Himmler to become a member of the SS as a civilian archaeologist and historian, Rahn quickly grew disillusioned with the direction his country was taking and resigned in 1939. He died, an alleged suicide, on March 13, 1939, in the snows of the Tyrolean Mountains.
Much as German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann used Homer's Iliad to locate ancient Troy, Rahn believed that Wolfram von Eschenbach's medieval epic Parzival held the keys to the mysteries of the Cathars and the secret location of the Holy Grail.Rahn saw Parzival not as a work of fiction, but as a historical account of the Cathars and the Knights Templar and their guardianship of the Grail, a "stone from the stars."


La commanderie de Coulommiers se situe en Île-de-France, dans le département de Seine-et-Marne à environ 20 km au sud-est de Meaux et 60 km à l'est de Paris. Elle se trouve en ville haute, dans le quartier dit "des Templiers" situé au nord de la ville.La commanderie de Coulommiers est la dernière complète pour la France au nord de la Loire. Elle a été sauvée de justesse de la démolition en 1966 par une association locale appelée « les Amis du Musée du Papier », présidée par le maire de l'époque, Bertrand Flornoy, puis par Jean Schelstraete, ingénieur agronome habitant à Coulommiers. La commanderie est ainsi restaurée depuis quarante ans par des bénévoles lors de chantiers internationaux, dans le cadre de l’Union REMPART. Son intérêt national et public lui a valu un classement comme Monument historique en 1994. L'architecte en chef est Hervé Baptiste.

クロミエールのコマンダリーはイル・ド・フランス、セーネ・マルヌ県にあり、Meauxの東南約20km、パリの東約60kmに位置する。それは山の手にあり、街ではテンプル騎士団は街の北にいたと言われている。クロミエールのコマンダリーは、ロワール川の北側のフランスでは、最後の完全なものである。「紙博物館の支援者」という名の地元組織によって、1966年に解体からかろうじて救われ、当時の市長Bertrand Flornoy、そしてクロミエールに住む農業技師Jean Schelstraeteによって管理されてきた。
こうして、このコマンダリーは40年もの間、城壁組合の中で、国際的な現場のボランティアによって修復されてきた。その国際的、公的な興味によって、1994年には歴史的建造物に指定された。建築主任はHervé Baptisteである。


This picture was taken as a commercial photo. You can see that a black old woman is holding a white child in her arms. This contrast is very sharp. In this world, many conflicting principles, such as good and evil, life and death, male and female, right and left, etc... are opposed to each other, but at the same time, they are co-existing. It could be considered that the child is an angel, on the other hand, the old woman is a symbol of evil. What is the meaning of the old woman is handing the flowers to the child? Does satan tempt the angel? You will soon recognize that the subject is the same as "The Temptation of St. Anthony". Is evil born from good? Or, are good and evil co-existing from the beginning of the universe? This picture raises a very fundamental question about the origin of the evil. Eventually, this picture was used for a campaign against smoking.

Meanwhile, Pope Alexander III convoked the Third Council of the Lateran in 1179.The Pontiff dictated fresh, harsh measures against the Cathars of Gascony, Albi, and Toulouse:The Count of Toulouse, the Viscount of Beziers, the Count of Foix, and the greater part of the barons of Occitania were all excommunicated. Pope Alexander, whose missionaries in Toulouse and the Occitan prelates told him in terrifying terms about the growing power and audacity of the sect, believed that the moment had come to send a new special legate to the heretical provinces to guarantee the strict application of the resolutions of the Third Council of the Lateran.